The Juvenile Justice Professional's Guide to
Human Subjects Protection and the IRB Process
Home Before we begin Let's begin History of H.S. Protection Confidentiality of Secondary Youth Data Responsibility for Protecting Human Subjects Administration of the IRB
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Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (PPRA)
Human Subjects Research
Ethical Principles of the Belmont Report
The Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Protecting Human Subjects from Harm
The Consent Process
Privacy Protections
Related Laws
The Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (PPRA) (34 CFR Part 98), also applies to all programs and institutions that use funding from the U.S. Department of Education. PPRA specifies that parents and guardians have the legal right to review certain Federal surveys and instructional materials and that parental/guardian consent is required before the documents can be used to gather information from a minor. In addition, state and local educational agencies must obtain parental permission before a student is asked for information about political affiliation; mental and psychological problems; sexual behavior and attitudes; illegal or self-incriminating behavior; privileged information typically shared with lawyers, doctors, and clergy; and income.

Many of the legal and ethical dilemmas that juvenile justice professionals encounter are associated with issues of interpretation and application of both FERPA and PPRA regulations. Local school personnel, together with state and Federal education experts can provide information and respond to privacy questions. Typically, specific Federal agencies monitor and respond to questions about particular laws. The Family Policy Compliance Office (FPCO) within the U.S. Department of Education serves as a resource to answer questions about or to clarify ethical obligations and legal responsibilities relative to FERPA and PPRA.

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